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Definition of artificial intelligence / history / types / fields / tools/platforms/ pros / cons / future of artificial intelligence

Definition of artificial intelligence / history / types / fields / tools/platforms/ pros / cons / future of artificial intelligence

Definition of Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence is one of the branches of computer science, and one of the main pillars of the technology industry in the current era, and the term artificial intelligence – referred to by the acronym (AI) – can be defined as the ability of digital machines and computers to perform certain tasks that simulate It is similar to that of intelligent beings;

Such as the ability to think or learn from previous experiences or other processes that require mental processes, and artificial intelligence aims to reach systems that have intelligence and behave in the way that humans act in terms of learning and understanding so that these systems provide their users with various services of education and guidance interaction and so on.


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The history of artificial intelligence

  • The history of the emergence of the term artificial intelligence dates back to the fifties of the twentieth century, specifically in the year 1950 AD, when the scientist Alan Turing (Alan Turing) introduced what is known as the Turing Test (Turing Test), which is concerned with evaluating the intelligence of a computer, and classifying it Intelligent if it is able to mimic the human mind.
  • One year after the appearance of the Turing Test, the first program to use artificial intelligence was created by Christopher Strachey – who was head of programming research at Oxford University – as he was able to run the checkers game (checkers) via a computer and develop it.
  • Then Anthony Oettinger from the University of Cambridge designed a computer simulation of the shopping process of a human person in more than one store, and this simulation aimed to measure the ability of a computer to learn, and this was the first successful experiment of what It is known as machine learning.
  • In 1979, the Stanford vehicle was built, the first computer-controlled vehicle, And the pace of acceleration in artificial intelligence began at the beginning of the twenty-first century until interactive robots became available in stores, and even more so, there was a robot that interacts with feelings Different robots can use facial expressions, and other robots that have become difficult tasks such as the Nomad robot, which is tasked with searching and exploring remote places in the Antarctic, and locating meteorites in the region.

Types of artificial intelligence

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Artificial intelligence can be classified according to its capabilities into three different types, as follows:

  • Limited or Narrow Artificial Intelligence: (Weak AI or Narrow AI)

Limited or narrow artificial intelligence (Weak AI or Narrow AI) is one of the types of artificial intelligence that can perform specific and clear tasks, such as self-driving cars, or even speech or image recognition programs, or chess on smart devices, and this type is considered Artificial intelligence is the most common and widely available type today.

  • General Artificial Intelligence: (General AI)

It is the type that can work with an ability similar to the human ability in terms of thinking, as it focuses on making the machine capable of thinking and planning on its own and like human thinking, but there are no practical examples of this type, all that exists so far are just research studies It takes a lot of effort to develop it and turn it into reality, and the Artificial Neural Network method is one of the methods of studying general artificial intelligence, as it is concerned with producing a system of machine neural networks similar to those contained in the human body.

  • Super Artificial Intelligence: (Super AI)
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Super AI is considered the type that may exceed the level of human intelligence, and which can perform tasks better than a specialized and knowledgeable person, and this type has many characteristics that it must include; Such as the ability to learn, plan, communicate automatically, and make judgments, but the concept of AI is considered a hypothetical concept that does not exist in our time.

Artificial intelligence can also be classified according to the functions it performs, as this classification includes four different types as follows:

  • Reactive machines: The artificial intelligence of interactive machines (in English: Reactive Machines) is the simplest type of artificial intelligence; As this type lacks the ability to learn from past experiences or past experiences to develop future business, it interacts with current experiences to get them out in the best possible way, and examples of this type of artificial intelligence are the Deep Blue devices developed by IBM, and the AlphaGo system of Microsoft The Google.
  • Limited memory: The type of artificial intelligence with limited memory can store data from previous experiences for a limited period of time, and the self-driving system is one of the best examples of this type; It stores the last speed of other cars, how far the car is from other cars, the speed limit, and other data needed for road driving.
  • Theory of Mind: This type of artificial intelligence is concerned with the machine understanding human feelings, interacting with people and communicating with them, and it is worth noting that there are currently no practical applications for this type of artificial intelligence.
  • Self-awareness: The type of self-awareness is one of the future expectations that artificial intelligence aspires to, so that machines have self-awareness and special feelings, which will make them smarter than the human being, and this concept still does not exist on the ground.

Subfields of artificial intelligence

There are many subfields of artificial intelligence, which are:

  • Machine learning is one of the branches of artificial intelligence that is concerned with making the computer able to learn on its own from any previous experiences or experiences, which makes it able to predict and make the appropriate decision quickly, through the development of algorithms that allow such a thing, and it is worth noting. The term was first introduced in 1959 AD by Arthur Samuel (Arthur Samuel).
  • Data Mining which means searching and mining specific data and certain patterns within a large group of data by means of computer programs, as companies can benefit from data mining in developing their performance, increasing their sales, and reducing production costs.
  • Information Retrieval and Semantic Web information retrieval means the process of searching for data and documents of any kind, which may exist across the Web, through the concept of the Semantic Web, which transforms the data on the World Wide Web into a global database in which the information is interconnected, so that it is Understandable by machines and its use is not limited to humans only, through this matter the machine can book tickets online, use dictionaries on the web, or other things that originally require human use to complete them.
  • Knowledge Representation and Knowledge Database Knowledge representation is the field of artificial intelligence that is concerned with enabling machines to think and make decisions. This knowledge acquired by the machine is collected and stored in a database that is used for knowledge exchange and management, and is a reference for making any intelligent decisions that may be issued by the machine.
  • Logical Reasoning and Probabilistic Reasoning Logical reasoning in artificial intelligence is one of the different forms of thinking, as facts are inferred and elicited from available data. , which is suspicious of its occurrence.

Definition of artificial intelligence / history / types / fields / tools/platforms/ pros / cons / future of artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence tools and platforms

There are many tools available for learning artificial intelligence, including the following:

  • Caffe Tool: This open source tool – that is, it is available for modification by anyone – was developed by Yangqin Jia as a PhD research at the University of California, and this tool is concerned with what is known as deep learning in intelligence artificial.
  • Deeplearning4j Tool: is a deep learning programming library written in Java that has the ability to process big data. Like its predecessor, Deeplearning4j is open source.
  • IBM Watson Tool: It is a tool that allows its users to answer their questions with capabilities similar to human capabilities. This tool may be a source to help provide business advice and make the best decision. It also protects the data of its users by encrypting it, and it is worth noting that this tool is only available in English.
  • Pybrain Tool: It is a utility tool for people who are new to the Python language, and for those interested in the topics of deep learning and artificial neural networks within artificial intelligence, this open source tool serves as a library for what is known as machine learning.
  • Swift AI Tool: This tool can work on Mac devices, and will soon be able to support the Linux system, as Swift AI allows its users to process signals, create algorithms for deep learning, or even create neural networks in the field of artificial intelligence.
  • Torch Tool: It is an open source tool for scientific computing within artificial intelligence, and this tool is characterized by its support for neural networks in artificial intelligence, its ability to perform linear algebra operations, and its support for the graphics processing unit.
  • CNTK Tool: An open source tool that allows its users to combine different types of artificial intelligence models, this tool was developed by Microsoft.
  • Keras tool: Python language was used to write this tool, which is a high-level library of what is known as neural networks in the science of artificial intelligence, and is easy to use for those who have knowledge of deep learning.
  • Scikit-Learn: Scikit-Learn is one of the most popular machine learning libraries in artificial intelligence, through which it is possible to extract, analyze and visualize data.
  • Theano Tool: It is a tool that works within the Python work environment, and deals with various mathematical and arithmetic operations and tasks such as arrays, and this tool is characterized by its speed through the personal computer; It is not limited to using the CPU to do its tasks, but it uses the GPU along with the CPU; For quick execution of her orders.

Many artificial intelligence platforms are concerned with machines carrying out tasks similar to what humans do, whether in terms of responding, interacting with problems, or even learning, and here are some of the most common and used artificial intelligence platforms:

  • Microsoft Azure Machine Learning: It is an artificial intelligence platform provided by Microsoft, used through the cloud storage service, and enables its users to analyze data to facilitate business machine learning.
  • TensorFlow platform: It is an open source library developed by the Google Brain team, where information is represented in the form of graphs, and each part of this graph expresses a specific piece of information.
  • Infosys Nia platform: It is one of the artificial intelligence platforms that relies on knowledge, then automation – automation – business processes and reformulating its system again.
  • Wipro HOLMES platform: It is a platform that provides its users with many cognitive computing services; To develop machines such as robots and drones.
  • Other AI platforms: API.AI, Premonition, Rainbird, Ayasdi, Mind Meld, Wit, Vital A.I, KAI, Receptiviti, and Meya.

Artificial intelligence applications

There are many practical applications of artificial intelligence, and the most prominent of these applications are the following:

  • Games: Artificial intelligence systems are used in many electronic games; Which requires a dimension and strategic thinking, such as poker and chess, for example.
  • Interact with the visual system: Some artificial intelligence applications can interpret and analyze the images entered into them; As facial recognition software, image analysis to determine location, and other similar applications.
  • Interaction with handwriting: through applications to recognize handwritten font, whether the process of writing is on paper or on the screen of the device itself.
  • Intelligent robots: Robots do a lot of different jobs, as they can do the work that humans do, due to their ability to sense surrounding factors such as light, heat, sound, or movement, through special sensors, and these robots are able to learn from their previous experiences and benefit from of errors.
  • Interact with the spoken voice: Some artificial intelligence systems can be used to listen to speech and understand its meanings, even if it is pronounced in the presence of some noise or is pronounced in slang or street language.
  • Providing advice and guidance: Some applications of artificial intelligence can provide advice and advice to its human users in certain areas, such as the medical field, for example, by analyzing the symptoms of a disease to reach and treat the disease, for example.

Definition of artificial intelligence history types fields tools platforms future of artificial intelligence

Advantages of artificial intelligence

Some many positives and benefits result from the use of artificial intelligence, including the following:

  • Permanent work: This is through the ability of machines to perform their work continuously without feeling tired or bored, and the stability of their ability to produce at all times without regard to the time or circumstances surrounding the work.
  • Important applications for daily life: Artificial intelligence provides many applications that have become important to human daily life, and the smartphone and its various smart systems, such as GPS, are one of the most prominent examples of human need for various artificial intelligence applications.
  • Using artificial intelligence to provide services: many large organizations have relied on artificial intelligence systems to provide services to their customers instead of the traditional employee.
  • Getting rid of repetitive work: Artificial intelligence systems can be used to carry out routine work that requires the same work mechanism every time, and these systems can also be used to carry out work that may pose a threat to human life.
  • Providing medical care: There are many artificial intelligence systems that provide medical care to humans, through surgery simulators, or those applications that help detect neurological disorders or those that allow the patient to know the side effects of drugs, and it is necessary to mention the applications of radiosurgery. Which helped the possibility of eradicating tumors without causing any harm to the surrounding healthy tissues.
  • The ability to process a huge amount of data: AI systems can handle, store and process a huge amount of data.
  • Accuracy and Reducing the Margin of Error: The human use of artificial intelligence systems contributes to reducing the error rate that may occur during the implementation of tasks, in addition to the great accuracy in performing these tasks.
  • Doing difficult jobs: AI systems can do things that humans might not be able to do, such as excavating and exploring hard-to-reach places like the ocean floor.
  • Lack of emotion arbitration: unlike humans, artificial intelligence is not affected by any emotions that may hinder the progress of work. These systems are not moody, but rather work according to a logical way of thinking, which makes them able to make the right decisions within a short time.

Definition of artificial intelligence history types fields tools platforms future of artificial intelligence

Disadvantages of artificial intelligence

Many negatives result from the use of artificial intelligence, including the following:

  • The high cost of using, upgrading and maintaining artificial intelligence systems.
  • The lack of awareness of artificial intelligence systems of human ethics and values, these systems lack the ability to make appropriate judgments, they are only interested in implementing what they were designed for without looking at what is right and wrong in carrying out tasks.
  • The inability of artificial intelligence systems to change and develop their work system if they receive the same data every time, and this may render them useless at a certain stage.
  • The lack of artificial intelligence systems to respond to conditions and changes that may occur in the work environment, and their inability to be as creative and inventive as humans are.
  • Many workers and employees have been laid off as a result of using artificial intelligence systems and relying on them instead of humans.

– The future of artificial intelligence

Here are some of the future visions that artificial intelligence systems may reach in different areas:

  • Entertainment: It may be possible for a person to watch a movie that he chooses to cast, and artificial intelligence systems may help production companies analyze the scenario of a specific movie and predict the profits that the movie may reap when it is shown in cinemas.
  • Medical care: It is expected that future artificial intelligence systems will be able to provide superior medical care to humans, by providing special care for each patient depending on his genes, lifestyle and environment, which helps diagnose brain tumors, and treat cancer appropriate for each patient.
  • Data and information security: It is expected that future artificial intelligence systems will be able to protect people’s data from theft and hacking.
  • Daily life: Future intelligence systems will have a major role in doing many of the daily vital tasks that humans need, such as caring for the elderly and taking care of them permanently, completing household chores and many other things that one artificial intelligence system will be able to do together, and artificial intelligence systems will also have A major role in performing work that may require risks to be carried out, such as firefighting and mine disposal.
  • Transportation: It is expected that in the future, fully self-driving cars will be reached, so that the driver will be able to do anything else and leave driving to the artificial intelligence systems available in his car, and it must be noted that self-driving cars do exist at the present time, but they It will be widely available and popular in the future.

Definition of artificial intelligence history types fields tools platforms future of artificial intelligence

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