Hodgkin’s disease what is it?
Most cells in the body are predisposed to be cancer that spreads to all parts of the body. Cancer usually begins when cells begin to grow and multiply out of control. To learn more about how Hodgkin’s disease starts, read this article.
What is Hodgkin’s disease?
Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also known as Hodgkin’s disease, is a type of lymphoma that affects the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is a network of nodes (tissue nodes) connected by vessels that drain fluids and waste products from the body. Lymph nodes act as small filters that strain foreign organisms and cells.
Hodgkin’s disease occurs when lymph node cells or lymphocytes begin to multiply uncontrollably, producing malignant cells that have an abnormal ability to invade other tissues throughout the body.
Hodgkin’s disease occurs in two different age groups:
Young adults (ages 15 to 35) and older adults (over 50 years old). It is somewhat more common in males than in females, and more common in Caucasians than in African Americans.
There are two main types of lymphoma:
- Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL).
- Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL).
These two types spread and respond to treatment differently, so you need to know the right treatment for your condition.
Because of advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease, most people with Hodgkin lymphoma will be long-term survivors.
The exact cause of Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown. However, several factors can increase the risk of developing the condition, including:
- Having a medical condition that weakens your immune system, such as HIV.
- Getting medical treatment that weakens your immune system, such as taking medication to suppress your immune system after an organ transplant.
- Previous exposure to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common virus that causes glandular fever.
- Previous non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, possibly due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
- Being overweight (obesity) This may be a risk factor more in women than in men.
Hodgkin’s disease is not contagious and is not thought to run in families. Although the risk is increased if a first-degree relative (parent, sibling, or child) has lymphoma, it is not clear whether this is due to a genetic defect or lifestyle factors.
Hodgkin’s disease diagnosis
To diagnose Hodgkin’s cancer, your doctor will perform a physical exam and ask you about your medical history. Your doctor will also order certain tests so that he can make a proper diagnosis:
- Imaging tests, such as an X-ray or CT scan.
- Lymph node biopsy, which involves removing a piece of lymph node tissue to test for abnormal cells.
- Blood tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC), to measure levels of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
- immune profiling; To determine the type of lymphoma cells present.
- Bone marrow biopsy, which involves removing and checking the marrow inside your bones to see if the cancer has spread.
Determining the stages of the disease
Once the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease is appropriately made, the stage of the cancer is assigned to determine the extent and severity of the disease, and treatment options to be determined.
There are four general stages of Hodgkin’s disease:
- Stage 1 (early stage): means that the cancer is located in the lymph node area, or the cancer is only in one area of one organ.
- Stage 2 (locally advanced disease): The cancer is located in two areas of a lymph node on one side of the diaphragm, the muscle under the lung.
- Stage 3 (advanced disease): This means that the cancer is in the lymph node regions above and below the diaphragm.
- Stage 4 (widespread disease): The cancer is found outside the lymph nodes and has spread widely to other parts of the body, such as the bone marrow, liver or lung.
Symptoms of Hodgkin’s disease
The most common symptom is swollen lymph nodes, which leads to a lump under the skin. This tumor is usually painless and may form in one or more of the following areas:
- on the side of the neck.
- in the armpit.
- around the thigh.
Other symptoms of Hodgkin’s disease include:
- fever and chills;
- Night sweats.
- Weight loss.
- itchy skin;
- Persistent cough, difficulty breathing, chest pain.
- Pain in the lymph nodes after drinking alcohol.
Hodgkin’s disease treatment
Hodgkin lymphoma is a relatively aggressive cancer that can spread rapidly throughout the body. However, it is also one of the most easily treatable types of cancer.
The recommended treatment plan depends on:
- The extent of the cancer spread.
- Your general health and your age because many treatments can put tremendous stress on the body.
- The main treatments used are chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone can be considered. Surgery is not generally used as a treatment for the condition.
In general, about 85% of people with Hodgkin lymphoma live at least 5 years, but there is a risk of long-term problems after treatment, including infertility and an increased risk of developing another type of cancer in the future.