Malignant neuroleptic syndrome: important information
What is a malignant neuroleptic syndrome? is its related to antipsychotics? symptoms what are they? Is it possible to treat it? Important information we provide in the following article.
The neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is a rare health problem that is medically called Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS).
Malignant neuroleptic syndrome what is mean by?
Pernicious psychosis is a serious neurological condition that often appears as a side effect of certain medications, such as antipsychotic drugs – Neuroleptic medication, but can also arise from other causes as well.
This syndrome usually leads to the emergence of a group of distinctive symptoms on the patient, most notably fever and muscle stiffness.
In the past, the malignant psychosis syndrome led to death in 76% of cases, but with the development of medicine and the increase in awareness about this problem, death rates among people with malignant psychosis began to decline, reaching at present time a rate ranging between 10-20%.
Although this syndrome can be serious, it is a treatable health problem, especially if it’s diagnosed and treated early.
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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome causes and risk factors
These are the most prominent causes and factors that may trigger the development of pernicious psychotic syndrome:
1- Use of antipsychotic drugs
One of the most common causes of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome is the use of antipsychotics, which are drugs that suppress the production of a specific type of brain chemical called dopamine, and are often used to treat conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. ).
Examples of antipsychotics that may cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome include:
- Older types of antipsychotics, such as: chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and perphenazine.
- Modern types of antipsychotics, which doctors usually call (Atypical antipsychotics), such as: Aripiprazole, Brixpiprazole, and Clozapine.
Although taking antipsychotics is often a common cause of this syndrome, the following factors, specifically for patients who use this type of medication, may increase the chances of developing:
- Rapidly increase the dose used.
- Use of high doses of the mentioned drugs.
- Obtaining medicines through injection.
- Changing medications used and replacing some types of antipsychotics with others.
2- Use of some anti-nausea and anti-nausea medications
The neuroleptic malignant syndrome may sometimes arise as a result of the use of certain medications designed to combat nausea and vomiting, which may also contribute to the inhibition of dopamine, such as the following medications:
- Droperidol (Droperidol).
3- Stop using Parkinson’s disease medications
A possible cause of the neuroleptic pernicious syndrome is the rapid discontinuation of some types of medications used to treat Parkinson’s disease, such as levodopa.
4- Other factors
Some other factors may also contribute to increasing the chances of developing this syndrome, such as:
- The use of some other types of medications, such as: lithium, antidepressants, and the drug Reserpine, which lowers blood pressure.
- Having some health problems, such as: some neurological diseases, and dehydration.
- Presence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in the patient’s medical history.
Symptoms of malignant neuroleptic syndrome
Pernicious psychosis may cause symptoms that are often classified into 4 main categories, as follows:
1. Problems with movement
This type of symptom often appears as general stiffness in the muscles of the body that may be accompanied by tremors, and in some cases, the movement problems associated with MNS may appear as other symptoms, such as a movement disorder called Chorea.
Malignant psychotic syndrome is often associated with high body temperature, with rates ranging from 38-40 degrees Celsius.
3. Mental and nervous problems
This type of symptoms may start in the form of a kind of delirium, to develop after that to more severe symptoms, such as lethargy, and the patient stops responding to his surrounding environment.
4. Involuntary hyperactivity
Pernicious psychosis syndrome may cause the emergence of a type of involuntary activities in the body that may negatively affect health, causing complications such as:
- Breathing quickening.
- Blood pressure imbalance.
- Excessive sweating, excessive saliva production.
Diagnosis of the malignant neuroleptic syndrome
Malignant neuroleptic syndrome diagnoses, the extent to which the case matches some standard conditions is usually investigated, such as the patient’s use of some types of antipsychotics for a period ranging between 1-4 weeks in conjunction with the occurrence of the following:
- The appearance of the following symptoms in particular: high temperature, muscle stiffness.
- At least 5 of the other symptoms listed above appear.
Patient may also be subjected to some tests that may help confirm the diagnosis, such as:
- Blood and urine tests.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome treatment
Treat this syndrome, the patient is often admitted to the intensive care unit in the hospital, where he may undergo the following procedures:
- Stopping the antipsychotic drug if this is the cause, or restarting a particular drug if its withdrawal from the body is the cause.
- Reducing body temperature by using cold compresses, and subjecting the patient to artificial respiration.
- Use of certain types of medications, such as: drugs to stimulate muscle relaxation, such as Dantrolene, and Parkinson’s disease medications that may help raise dopamine levels, such as amantadine.
- Electroconvulsive therapy.