Ottoman empire timeline
The Ottoman Empire is considered one of the most ruling Islamic countries in history, as its rule lasted for more than 6 centuries from the period (1299 AD – 1924 AD), and its conquests included the three continents (Asia, Europe, Africa) and were ruled by no less than 36 rulers from the Al family Osman, in this article we will learn more about the history of the Ottoman Empire and the highlights of the era in which it ruled.
The origin of the Ottoman Empire
The origin of the Ottomans goes back to the Qabi tribe, one of the Turkish Al-Ghaz clans that inhabited Mesopotamia, that is, Turkestan. In the country of Turkestan, which made the Turkish tribes migrate to Azerbaijan, to settle there.
Why did the Ottomans give this name?
The Ottomans belong to Osman bin Ertugrul bin Suleiman Shah (1258 AD), the founder and first ruler of the Ottoman Empire, who accompanied the Seljuk Sultan Aladdin and helped him in the conquests. About Othman and pledged allegiance to him as ruler over them, and this coincided with the year in which Othman was born, the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate at the hands of the Mongols led by their leader Hulagu, who in turn invaded Baghdad and poured all his hatred on the city and its people.
The rise of the Ottoman Empire
After the people pledged allegiance to Othman bin Artgrel, he was able to form a state attributed to him, and he took the city of Qara Hesar as his capital, and he became independent from his Seljuk allies after the Mongols raided him, and Muslims who flee from the Tatars have a haven, especially since his people are among the first princes who embraced Islam – so The Islamic character emerged on the Ottoman Empire after him – and they continued his message in fighting the Byzantines, expanding the Ottoman Empire and protecting it from any external threats.
The most prominent rulers (sultans) of the Ottoman Empire
- Sultan Osman I
The founder of the Ottoman Empire and its first leader, born in the year (1258 AD-656 AH), grew up during the period of weakness of the Islamic state, the demise of its prestige, and his heart was filled with hatred against the Crusaders after he witnessed what they did to his tribe. All these things planted in Othman the love of fighting and battles, so he was a political man As a military leader, Othman I was distinguished by wisdom, patience, and sincerity, and he was the first to enable justice with his subjects, so few were oppressed in his time, and he followed the Qur’an as the first and basic source of legislation.
Osman died of illness in the year 1324 AD, where he spent nearly 27 years in power and was buried in the city of Bursa according to his will.
- Sultan Orhan Ghazi Ibn Othman
The second son of Sultan Osman Al-Ghazi, founder of the Ottoman Empire, and his father raised him from a young age to assume the responsibilities of government and military matters and took command of the soldiers that were fighting against the Crusades.
His first work was the transfer of the capital to Bursa due to its strategic location, and the expansion of conquests to eastern Europe, and then spent nearly twenty years in building and refining civil and military systems, in addition to building mosques and public facilities and strengthening the internal security of the state, in addition to his contribution to a major role in preparing for the conquest of Constantinople.
Orkhan died in (761 AH – 1360 AD) after ruling for nearly 38 years, and the size of the Ottoman lands had reached 95,000 square kilometers, which is 6 times what the state was when Orkhan took power.
- Sultan Mehmed al-fatih
He is the seventh sultan in the family of the Othmans, and he is nicknamed Al-Fatih and the father of good deeds. He took over the rule of the Ottoman Empire on his father’s behalf at the age of 22 in 1454 AD. Muhammad was distinguished by an outstanding personality that combines justice and strength.
He followed the path of his forefathers in the conquests, and changed many internal matters upon assuming power, including adjusting financial matters to avoid extravagance and luxury, developing and reorganizing army battalions, setting records for soldiers, and other general reforms.
He was called Muhammad the Conqueror because he was the military leader who achieved the prophetic gospel and the conquest of Constantinople, which is one of the most important and largest cities in the world and the capital of the Byzantine Empire, after many attempts by the sultans that preceded him.
The disease continued to intensify on Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih until he died in the year (886 AH) after he was preparing the army to leave for Italy to complete the conquests.
The fall of the Ottoman Empire
The main reasons that led to the collapse and decline of the Ottoman Empire can be summarized as follows:
- The many conflicts between the peoples who lived in the areas ruled by the state, which led to the weakening of the administrative structure in the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of rebellions and independence from the state.
- The wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Crusaders did not stop throughout its history, which caused the state’s military weakness, drained its equipment and robbed it of a large part of its lands. All of these things forced the state to conclude a truce to reduce losses with those countries.
- The state’s participation in the First World War played a key role in weakening and collapsing the state, which enabled the state’s allies at that time to occupy Constantinople, where Greece took the western part, and Britain acquired the southern part of it.
- The Lausanne Conference was held by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, from which several decisions emerged that had a significant impact on the practice of Ottoman rule and the declaration of Turkey’s independence.
Ottoman empire timeline